The challenge is to reduce inputs and thus promote adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses for an agriculture that will be less resource intensive, more environment-friendly and adapted to climate change.
Screening for candidate genes involved in stress response in tomato.
In the ANR Adaptom,we have studied the genetic basis of the response to stress conditions using the MAGIC population, which has been characterized by the breeding companies Gautier Semences in Morocco and Clause in Israel under water stress, heat stress and variable salt conditions (PhD I Diouf). We plan to identify candidate genes by fine mapping the major QTL and start their validation through Tilling (in collaboration with INRA Bordeaux) and CrispRCas9 genome editing.
An ANR project (TomEpiSet, coordinator M. Zouine, INP-Toulouse) started in 2017, focusing on the impact of heat stress. This will allow us to deepen our approach of this major stress for tomato in Mediterranean countries.
In the EU TRADITOM project, we are coordinating the WP on the impact of environment on fruit quality.
Albert E, Gricourt J, Bertin N, Bonnefoi J, Pateyron S, Tamby JP, Bitton F, Causse M. 2016. Genotype by watering regime interactions in cultivated tomato: lessons from linkage mapping and gene expression. Theor Appl Genet 129: 395-418
Albert E, Segura V, Gricourt J, Bonnefoi J, Derivot L, Causse M (2017) Association mapping reveals the genetic architecture of tomato response to water deficit: focus on major fruit quality traits. J Exp Bot 67: 6413-30
Diouf IA, Derivot L, Bitton F, Pascual L and Causse M (2018) Water Deficit and Salinity Stress Reveal Many Specific QTL for Plant Growth and Fruit Quality Traits in Tomato. Front. Plant Sci. 9:279. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00279
Ascorbate in tomato.
Ascorbate (vitamin C) is an ideal antioxidant and an excellent nutritional quality marker in both fresh and processed fruit and vegetables. Research on this vitamin is vital for the production of healthy and high quality fruit and vegetables but ascorbate has also redox functions within a plant cell which must be understood and taken into account if we aim to manipulate the levels of this vitamin.
We have been focusing on redox control of the ascorbate pool starting with the impact on traits of agronomic interest. Network analysis of transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic data of lines silenced for either ascorbate oxidase or ascorbate free radical reductase has revealed several hubs including a gene encoding a ribosomal protein and a direct comparison of transcriptome data for these two lines shows the differentially expressed genes are over-represented for functions involving structural constituents of Ribosomes as well as protein binding and protein kinase regulator activity.
V Truffault, G Riqueau, C Garchery, H Gautier, RG Stevens (2018) Is monodehydroascorbate reductase activity in leaf tissue critical for the maintenance of yield in tomato? Journal of plant physiology 222, 1-8
Stevens R, Baldet P, Bouchet JP, Causse M, Deborde C, Deschodt C, Faurobert M, Garchery C, Garcia V, Gautier H, Gouble B, Maucourt M, Moing A, Page D, Petit J, Poessel JL, Truffault V and C Rothan (2018) systems biology study in tomato fruit reveals correlations between the ascorbate pool and genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, translation and the heat-shock response. Frontiers Plant Sci doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.00137
V Truffault, SC Fry, RG Stevens, H Gautier (2017) Ascorbate degradation in tomato leads to accumulation of oxalate, threonate and oxalyl threonate. The plant journal 89 (5), 996-1008
R Stevens, V Truffault, P Baldet, H Gautier (2017) Ascorbate Oxidase in Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Tolerance. Ascorbic Acid in Plant Growth, Development and Stress Tolerance, 273-295
L Mounet-Gilbert, M Dumont, C Ferrand, C Bournonville, A Monier, et al (2016) Two tomato GDP-D-mannose epimerase isoforms involved in ascorbate biosynthesis play specific roles in cell wall biosynthesis and development. Journal of experimental botany 67 (15), 4767-4777
V Truffault, N Gest, C Garchery, A Florian, AR Fernie, H Gautier, et al (2016) Reduction of MDHAR activity in cherry tomato suppresses growth and yield and MDHAR activity is correlated with sugar levels under high light. Plant, cell & environment 39 (6), 1279-1292
Multi-stress (biotic and abiotic) in Prunus.
Reducing phytosanitary inputs in fruit production is particularly important because it meets several requirements: Ecophyto objectives, prohibition of certain pesticides, specifications from distributors (number of active substances detected in fruit), potential overcoming of resistance...
The main pathogens causing most treatments or damage are beeing identified for each Prunus species (eg for peach: brown rot, aphids and powdery mildew, leaf curl; for apricot: canker and monilia on flowers), and will be the subject of future work.
In addition, the regularity of production, linked to the adjustment of phenology to the climate and the frequency of floral anomalies, induced by environmental conditions during the months before flowering, are a real problem for apricot.
Bellingeri, M., Quilot-Turion, B., Oliveira, L., Bevacqua, D. (2018). The Crop Load Affects Brown Rot Progression in Fruit Orchards: High Fruit Densities Facilitate Fruit Exposure to Spores but Reduce the Infection Rate by Decreasing Fruit Growth and Cuticle Cracking. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 5.
Pascal, T., Aberlenc, R., Confolent, C., Hoerter, M., Lecerf, E., Tuero, C., Lambert, P. (2017). Mapping of new resistance (Vr2, Rm1) and ornamental (Di2, pl) Mendelian trait loci in peach. Euphytica, 213 (6).
Mariette, S., Wong Jun Tai, F., Roch, G., Barre, A., Chague, A., Decroocq, S. , Groppi, A., Laizet, Y., Lambert, P., Tricon, D., Nikolski, M., Audergon, J.-M., Abbott, A. G., Decroocq, V. (2016). Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca). New Phytologist, 209 (2), 773-784.
Saucet, S. B., Van Ghelder, C., Abad, P., Duval, H., Esmenjaud, D. (2016). Resistance to root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. in woody plants. New Phytologist, 211 (1), 41-56.
Cirilli, M., Geuna, F., Babini , A.-R., Bozhkova, V., Catalano, L., Cavagna, B., Dallot, S., Decroocq, V., Dondini, L., Foschi, S., Ilardi, V., Liverani, A., Mezzetti, B., Minafra, A., Pancaldi, M., Pandolfini, T., Pascal, T., Savino, V. N., Scorza, R., Verde, I., Bassi, D. (2016). Fighting sharka in peach: current limitations and future perspectives. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7.
Oliveira Lino, L., Pacheco, I., Mercier, V., Faoro, F., Bassi, D., Bornard, I., Quilot-Turion, B. (2016). Brown rot strikes Prunus fruit: an ancient fight almost always lost. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64 (20), 4029-4047.