IntroductionBiocontrol is viewed as an environment friendly alternative to the use of conventional (synthetic) pesticides to control pests or weeds in agrosystems. It relies on the use of biopesticides (Table 1) gathering either macro/micro-organisms (also called biocontrol agents), natural substances purified from living organisms (biopesticides sensus stricto) or mineral preparations as defined in the Article L253-6 from the “Code rural et de la pêche maritime” (Code rural et de la pêche maritime 2014). The organisms can be insects, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, or viruses which could act as predators, parasitoids or pathogens of the pests or weeds (Flint and Dreistadt 1998). The natural substances can be plant extracts at various purification degrees or toxins from animals, plants, or bacteria. Depending on their nature and composition, they can induce toxic effects or manipulate the behavior of targeted organisms due to an attractive (as lures in traps) or repulsive effects. As for synthetic pesticides, the natural substances can be sprayed or associated to inert material or artificial food in order to optimize their efficiency in the field.
Amichot, M., Joly, P., Martin-Laurent, F., Siaussat, D., and Lavoir, A.-V. (2018). Biocontrol, new questions for Ecotoxicology? Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 33895–33900. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3356-5