Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Inra Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

http://www.paca.inra.fr/institut-sophia-agrobiotech_eng/

First demonstration of secretion of a superoxide dismutase in insects and possible role in parasitoids

First demonstration of secretion of a superoxide dismutase in insects and possible role in parasitoids. (ESIM Team)

Following identification of intracellular (SOD1) and extracellular (SOD3) Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase transcripts in the venom apparatus of two Leptopilina species, parasitoids of Drosophila, we could demonstrate that L. boulardi SOD3 (LbSOD3) is indeed secreted and active in venom. No SOD protein nor SOD activity were detected in L. heterotoma venom evidencing quantitative interspecific variation. Leptopilina recombinant SOD3s as well as a mammalian SOD in vitro inhibited the Drosophila phenoloxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that SODs may interfere with the Drosophila melanization process and therefore with production of the host cytotoxic compounds. Phylogenetic analyses of Leptopilina SODs indicated that the extracellular SODs are more related to cytoplasmic vertebrate SODs than to extracellular ones. This work provided the first demonstration that insect extracellular SODs are indeed secreted and active in an insect fluid and can be used as virulence factors to counteract the host immune response, a strategy largely used by bacterial and fungal pathogens but also protozoan parasites during infection.

Left: SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis on venom of Leptopilina parasitoids using a SOD-specific antibody. Middle: Phylogenetic analysis using vertebrate and insect Cu,Zn-SOD sequences. Right: SOD activity assay with Leptopilina venom. Modified from Colinet et al. 2011

Left: SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis on venom of Leptopilina parasitoids using a SOD-specific antibody. Middle: Phylogenetic analysis using vertebrate and insect Cu,Zn-SOD sequences. Right: SOD activity assay with Leptopilina venom. Modified from Colinet et al. 2011

  • Colinet D, Cazes D, Belghazi M, Gatti JL, Poirié M. (2011) Extracellular superoxide dismutase in insects:  characterization, function and interspecific variation in parasitoid wasp venom.J. Biol. Chem.286, 40110-40121