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INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Plant pathology unit - INRA AVIGNON

Pathologie vegetale

Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée

Aerial dissemination

Inoculum of Botrytis cinerea: airborne spread at different scales

Airborne inoculum of B. cinerea  in the vicinity of plants can originated from diseased plants (endogeneous inoculum) and from exogeneous spores coming from diverses plants (more than 200 hosts identified for the fungus) disseminated by air movements. The knowledge of the origin of the airborne inoculum is important as it can interact on the efficacy of the control methods, in relation of its abundance and biological properties.

Our research was focused till now on the study of spore fluxes at a local scale, in particular between the exterior and the inside of a plant shelter (plastic tunnel). As it is virtually impossible to observe directly the long distance movements of airborne microorganisms, we chose the approach of coupling Lagrangian models of air mass trajectories with the genetic characterization of strains collected from dry air and precipitation.

Airborne spread of B. cinerea on long distance movements

Monitoring viable airborne inoculum of B. cinerea at field sites of the INRA-PACA Centre in Avignon showed that B. cinerea was present during 96% of the sampling days. Significant correlations between the abundance of inoculum and local climatic factors as well as the trajectories of air masses showed that the source of the inoculum was not only local but also remote. Thus the air masses from northern and southern Europe tend to bring more viable B. cinerea inoculum in the Avignon region than those from the West. Eight distinct genetic groups were seen in this aerial inoculum. The relative abundance of strains in each group was linked to the origin of air masses with similar profiles for air masses from the North and South.

Leyronas, C., Halkett, F., Nicot, P. C. 2015. Relationship between the genetic characteristics of Botrytis sp. airborne inoculum and meteorological parameters, seasons and the origin of air masses. Aerobiologia, 31, 367-380

Genetic diversity of Botrytis cinerea in relation to the origin of air masses

© Pathologie végétale - INRA PACA Avignon

  • Leyronas, C., Halkett, F., Nicot, P. C. 2015. Relationship between the genetic characteristics of Botrytis sp. airborne inoculum and meteorological parameters, seasons and the origin of air masses. Aerobiologia, 31 (3), 367-380. DOI : 10.1007/s10453-015-9370-x
  • Leyronas, C., Nicot, P. C. 2013. Monitoring viable airborne inoculum of Botrytis cinerea in the South-East of France over 3 years: relation with climatic parameters and the origin of air masses. Aerobiologia, 29 (2), 291-299. DOI : 10.1007/s10453-012-9280-0

Airborne spread on smaller scales

The movement of inoculum of B. cinerea between soil, plants and air was revealed using microsatellite markers. Movement of inoculum was also observed between adjacent plastic tunnels  and between adjacent crops of different species.

  • methodological development combining a sensor spores high speed and the use of a semi-selective agar medium for B. cinerea
  • campaigns quantification airborne inoculum (concentration, deposition)  ​​inside and outside of tunnels on the experimental site unit
  • measure of physical and agronomic factors influencing the flow of air in a cold shelter, plastic tunnel characteristic of mediterranean-type areas
  • characterisation of the genetic structure of the B. cinerea strains (with microsatellite markers)
Leyronas, C., Fatnassi, H., Bardin, M., Boulard, T., and Nicot, P.C. 2011. Modelling Botrytis cinerea spore exchanges and production in unheated greenhouses. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93, 407-414

Modeling inoculum fluxes of Botrytis cinerea

© Pathologie végétale - INRA PACA Avignon

  • Fatnassi, H., Leyronas, C., Boulard, T., Bardin, M., and Nicot, P. 2009. Dependence of greenhouse tunnel ventilation on wind direction and crop height. Biosystems Engineering 103, 338-343.
  • Leyronas, C., Bardin, M., Duffaud, M., Nicot, P. C. 2015. Compared dynamics of grey mould incidence and genetic characteristics of Botrytis cinerea in neighbouring vegetable greenhouses. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97, 439-447.
  • Leyronas, C., Fatnassi, H., Bardin, M., and Nicot, P. 2008. Balance of airborne spores of Botrytis cinerea in tomato and lettuce tunnels and modelling of spore production. Aspects of Applied Biology 89: 43-48.
  • Leyronas, C., Fatnassi, H., Bardin, M., Boulard, T., and Nicot, P.C. 2011. Modelling Botrytis cinerea spore exchanges and production in unheated greenhouses. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93, 407-414
  • Leyronas, C., Nicot, P. 2013. Monitoring viable airborne inoculum of Botrytis cinerea in the South-East of France over 3 years: relation with climatic parameters and the origin of air masses. Aerobiologia, 29, 291-299.
Capteur pour les échantillonnages d'air

Monitoring airborne inoculum of Botrytis cinerea

© Pathologie végétale - INRA PACA Avignon